Widmayer Homeroom Judaism Unit Review Sheet

The format of the Judaism test is as follows:
1) Matching
2) Short Answer
3) Fill in the Blank
4) Pictures that you need to explain
5) Long Answer (open response)

1) Who was Abraham and why is his story important to Judaism?
He was the father of monotheism. Also he was the first person to hear god's voice. His wife was called Sarah and they had a child who would then carry on
the Jewish tradition. Abraham was important to Judaism because he was the first Jewish person in the world. He fully believed in god. One example of this is when he almost sacrificed his son. God had told him to, and since he almost did, he showed that he believed in god. Abraham was one the most important figures in Judiasm. He is known as one the forefathers.

2) Core Beliefs of Judaism
There are four core beliefs of Judaism. One of the beliefs is the messiah. The Jews believe a messiah will come and bring peace and complete monotheism to the world. They think the messiah will be a decendant of King David. Another core belief is monotheism. This means to believe in only one God. The jews also believe that Abraham made a covenant (contract) with God. Some think this means God chose the Jewish people to receive the Torah. The covenant (contract) stated that the Jews would observe and follow the torah and mitzvot. The fourth core belief is the Mitzvot. Following God's law is central to Jewish life. The mitzvot cover all areas of the life of a Jew. There are a total of 613 mitzvot Jewish people follow.

3) Bar and Bat Mitzvah
When a bat/Bar mitzvah you are responsible for following the mitzvot and other rules of Judaism. A Bat Mitzvah usually happens when the girl is 12 and a Bar Mitzvah usually happens when the boys is 13.

4) Tallit
Also known as prayer shawl-A shall worn over your shoulders (head) when you are praying. The fringes on the our corners have 613 knots in them.
There is a prayer written on the back that you say before you put it on.

5) Shofar-
A rams horn used at mainly rosh hashanah. It is blown into using special calls. It was made to sound like crying.

6) Kippah
A small cap worn by men and women. Some jews wear it everyday some wear it only while praying, eating or studying.

7) Torah
The torah is the sacred scroll that was given to the Jews by God on Mt Sinai. It read aloud on holidays, at synagogue, or a bar/bat mitzvah.
It is written in hebrew and takes about one year to make. The Jewish people really value it because at a synagogue it is kissed and touched.

8) Mitzvot
The Mitzvot. Orthodox Jews have to follow all 613 Mitzvot. They also belive that God gave Moses all 613 commandments on Mt. Sinai, Written and oral. The Mitzvot is on the core belifs. To Reconstructionst's the mizvots are still important. For Conservitive most of the basic mizvots can't be changed. For Reform

9) Rabbi
A teacher/prayer leader at a synagouge. The word rabbi means teacher.

10) Synagogue
the holy worship place.
Jews go there to pray and read from the Torah.
It is like the christian church
People go there on holidays and on shabbat.

11) Western Wall
A long time ago, there was a big holy temple in Jurasalem. After it was destroyed, a small part of the temple was left. That small remaining bit is now called the Western Wall. At the Western Wall Jews pray, and sometimes leave notes in the cracks of the walls.

13) Branches of Judaism
-Reform: The first modern branch. In the nineteenth century, Reform made changes to Judaism to make it more compatible with the changing, modern world. For example, they made the language of prayer in the US into English instead of Hebrew. Reform people believe that the Mitzvot are only meaningful if they add to one's relationship with God. Also, Sabbath isn't observed by Reform Jews. Reform Jews think that the Mitzvot don't have to be followed exactly.

After Reform the Orthodox Judaism emerged. In response to the Reform branch, the Orthodox say that God gave Moses every letter of the Torah at Mt Sinai. They believe that no part of Judaism can be changed. The Orthodoxy say that the Torah contains 613 Mitzvot, none of which can be changed.

After the Orthodox Judaism emerged, the Conservative Judaism developed. They think that there's always been a way to change Judaism. However, they say that the basic can not be changed. For example, they say Kashrut, and the Sabbath can not be changed. The Conservative religion is not as strict as the Orthodox. In the conservative Judaism, women have an equal role as men in most synagouges.

After the conservative the Reconstructionist movement developed in the mid 20th century. They believe that Judaism is an evolving religion. They also say that the Mitzvot can be changed if it is not meaningful anymore. So reconstructionist people observe the Mitzvot because they think the Mitzvot are culturally valuable.

14) What is Shabbat? When is it? What happens on this day?
The Shabbat starts Friday afternoon at sundown and ends on Saturday again at sundown. It is a time of rest and a time when Jews cannot do work. Some of the things that you cannot do on the sabbath are planting in your garden or anything having to do with crops. You cannot bake on shabbat so you have to make all of your food on friday before sundown. You also can't sew or weave or anything in that category on shabbat. The main idea of what you can and cannot do is that you cannot creat anything on the sabbath.

15) What is kashrut? What is involved in keeping kosher?
Kashrut is keeping kosher. Kosher people can only eat foods with certain labels. Two of those labels are U's in circles and K's in stars. To get a Kosher label the food company needs to hire a rabbi to inspect the food making process, then they can give a seal of approval and a label will appear on the package. Some examples of Kosher foods are fruit, vegetables, and meat cured in a special way. (except for pork.) You cannot eat meat and dairy in the same meal. After eating meat or dairy, you must wait 8 hours before having the other one. Meat and dairy are even washed seperatly, and if possible they are washed in a different sink.

16) Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year and is when you ask God for forgiveness.

17) Yom Kippur- Yom Kippur literally means "Day of Atonement". on this day Jews fast and pray, hoping to get into the Book of Life so they will live through the year before the Book of Life closes.

18) Sukkot
Is known as the hut holiday. People built huts outside there house to remember the time the Jews left Egypt and had to live in huts. This is a happy and festive holiday! People will sometimes have parties in there huts. In addition, people may eat their meals in the huts, also known as the sukkah, or even sleep in them! People in the neighborhood might come over to the nearest sukkah and and a Sukkot party along with the family who made the sukkah in the first place!!!

19) Passover

Passover is the day to remember the Exodus. Passover is the most celebrated holiday, they eat special food to remember the Exodus they also tell the story of the Exodus. Children can act out parts of the exodus. Jews also have a special plate with special food to help remember the Exodus called the seder plate. The meal is called a seder. There is a special bread called matzah that the jews leaving Egypt ate.