The format of the Judaism test is as follows:
- Matching section
- Short Answer section
- Fill in the Blank section
- Pictures that you have to identify and explain
- Long answer section

1) Who was Abraham and why is his story important to Judaism?
Abraham started out with the name Abram until God made a covenant with him, telling Abram he would be the father of a great nation. Because of this, Abram changed his name to Abraham, which means exalted father of a great nation. His story is important to Judaism because he was the founder of this religion.

2) Core Beliefs of Judaism
~One of the core beliefs of Judaism is monotheism. It is the belief in 1 God.
~A core belief of judaism is the Messiah, which the jewish people believe is a person who has not come yet, but when the Messiah does come there will be world peace.
-Another core belief is the Covenant or contract with Abraham that he and his descendants would follow the mitzvot. This makes Jews believe that they're the "chosen people". This means, they think god chose them to follow the mitzvot.
~The final core belief is the mitzvot which is the belief that Jewish people should follow the commandments from the Torah on how to live their life. (The mitzvot)

3) Bar and Bat Mitzvah: The celebration when a boy becomes a son of the commandments (Bar Mitzvah) and when a girl becomes a daughter of the comandments (Bat Mitzvah) which means they are now reasponsible for the mitzvot. For a girl it is when she turns 12 plus one day or a boy is when he turns 13 plus one day (depends on the calender).

4) Tallit: A four-cornered prayer shawl worn for morning services. The most important part of the tallit are the fringes tied to the corners because they represent the commandments/mitzvot.
~Also, there are 613 fringes and 613 commandments or mitzvot

5) Shofar: An ram's horn blown on special holidays, for prayer.

6) Kippah
A.K.A yamaka (I think it's actually spelled yarmulke) is a head covering mainly worn by man and boys. It is worn when praying, eating, and parties. it can also be worn by women, but is not required to. (Jewish people wear them to always be aware that God is around them)

7) Torah
The Torah is a holy scroll. It is like the Christian bible, with only the first 5 books, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, & Deuteronomy. In synagouge, the Torah is read from and praised. Some people kiss the Torah. (The Torah takes a year to make)

8) Mitzvot:
The Mitzvot are the 613 commandments god gave Moses, they are the rules that all Jewish people have to follow.
They believe that God gave these commandments. They are on how to live your life as a Jewish person.

9) Rabbi:
A Rabbi is teacher for the Jewish people in the Synagogue.
Reads one part of the Torah everyday.

10) Synagogue
The Synagogue serves three main purposes. One, as a prayer and worship space. Two as a learning place, where people can learn Hebrew and Jewish history. And finally as a communtiy area.

11) Western Wall
It is part of an old temple, which was destroyed in 586 BCE. The only portion that remains is the exernal wall around the Temple mountain. It is now the most holy place out of all Jewish places. It is lso referred to as the "Wailing Wall" because most Jews come there to mourn at the loss of the Temple.

13) Branches of Judaism
- Orthodox: Believe God gave Moses the Torah on Mt. Sinai. Orthodox is the most strict branch of Judiasm because they follow the mitzvot strictly and exactly.
- Conservative: Believe the Mitzvoth cannot be changed but Jewish tradition and law can be. This branch is an egalitarian branch (egalitarian means: equal between men and women)
- Reform: The first branch. Reform Jews don't have to follow all of the Mitzvot, only if it helps with ones relationship with God. Reform Judaism also accepts woman as Rabbi.
- Reconstructionist: Most recent of the branches. Believe an individual Mitzvot can be changed but they are still an important part of Judiasm. The community can make decisions about the Mitzvot.

14) What is Shabbat? When is it? What happens on this day?
shabbat is a day of rest. you celebrate but do not leave the house without walking. It is every Friday and Saturday. there are 39 rules that you must follow on Shabbat.( I think it is every Friday at sundown, and ends when you can see three stars Saturday night)

15) What is kashrut? What is involved in keeping kosher?
Kashrut is the dietary laws of keeping kosher.
one rule is you can't eat meat with dairy
also, you can only eat produced food that has a kosher sign on it, like a U in a circle, or a K in a circle, etc...
16) Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah celebrates the jewish new year and is concidered one of the holiest days of the year. A shofar (5) is blown in the cinigog(it's spelled "synagogue"). Lots of Jewish people eat apples and honey. another common food on Rosh Hashanah are palmagranates (I think it is spelled Pomegranate). They are eaten because they supposobly(it's spelled suposedly, or i could be wrong. But its not spelled "supposobly") have exactaly six hundred thirteen seeds, supposibly(same here) representing the six hundred thirteen mitzivot (8), or commandments that Jewish people are supposed to follow.

17) Yom Kippur: Yom Kippur celebrates the day of atonement. People either spend most or all of the day in Synogogue. Everyone fasts on this day. (Some people) They don't drink either. Yom Kippur is a high holy day, along with Rosh Hashanah. I was wondering if going to synogoue is required on Yom Kippur, can you not go if you don't want to? I think you go to synagogue to ask for gods forgiveness.

18) Sukkot: Using Ms. Sadler's quote: "the hut holiday." A holiday where you build a sukkah (hut) and pray, eat, etc, in the sukkah. There are a few special items you pray with. The Lulav are branches of myrtle, palm, and willow, that you use to shake around for praying. With the Lulav is the Etrog. It is a fruit (yellow), kind of like a lemon. The tip of the etrog is very holy. If you break it off, the etrog isnt holy anymore. Its a very fun holiday!

19) Passover: Passover is the most practiced day of the Jewish hoidays. It is where you eat a meal called saetr(is that how you spell it? I always thought that t was just spelled sader) and you retell the Exodus, each food on the plate represents part of the story. Passover happens in the spring time.

20) Circumcision: Also known as a bris, this is a surgery performed on a 8 day old baby boy. During the process, the foreskin which is on the front of the boy's penis is removed by a surgean or a doctor that has done it many times before. It is highly popular in the United States to have a boy circumcised in all religions, not just Jewish males. This event can happen for personnel or medical suggestion. This ceremony is called a Brit Milah which means "the covenent of circumcision" or as I would call it, " the covenent of bris". This happens in memory of the commanment God told Moses on Mount. Sinai. "Such shall be the covenent between Me and you and your offspring to follow which you shall keep: every male among you shall be circumcised. You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and that shall be the sign of the covenent between Me and you. And throughout the generations, every male among you shall be circumcised at the age of 8 days". Genesis 17: 10-12
There are also ceromonies for newborn baby girls, but of course there is no bris involved.