Sadler Homeroom Judaism Unit Review Sheet

The format of the Judaism Test will include:

- Matching
- Short Answer
- Fill in the Blanks
- Pictures that you need to identify
- Long Answer (Open Response)

1) Who was Abraham and why is his story important to Judaism?
Abram was born in Ur and was chosen by God to be the father of a great nation. God made a covenant (one of the core beliefs of Judaism) with Abram that he would only worship one god. As a sign of that covenant, Abram's name was changed to Abraham which mans "exalted father of a great nation." To test Abraham to make sure he truly believed in God, God told Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac. However just as Abraham was about to kill Issac an angel stopped him and God was assured that Abraham "feared God" and had instilled his loyalty in him.

2) Core Beliefs of Judaism
One Core Belief of Judaism is monotheism, monotheism is the belief in one god.
Another core belief is the Covenant. The Covenant is when God made a contract or covenant with Abraham. Some people believe this made the Jewish "The Chosen People", though it doesn't mean that some people are better than others.
Another core belief is Messiah. Messiah in English is anointed. The Jewish believe the Messiah will be a human decedent of King David and will bring a time of complete peace when all people will believe and worship one God.
Another core belief is the Mitzvot, which are God's laws. They are instructions on how to live your live. The Ten Commandments are part of the mitzvot but in total there are 613 mitzvot. One mitzvah, many mitzvot.

3) Bar and Bat Mitzvah
This celebration is when a boy or girl becomes responsible for following the mitzvot. Bar=boy Bat=girl. It generally happens when a girl is around 12 and a boy is around 13. You become an "adult" after this celebration. To prepare for this the boy/girl must study a lot. During the actual ceremony he/she must read a part of the Torah. He/she also wears a tefillin. In orthodox temples, only boys celebrate their Bar Mitzvah. Following the Bar/Bat Mitzvah, there is a festive celebration and meal!

4) Tallit
A tallit is what boy's (sometimes girls) wear on around their shoulders before they pray. But before they can wear it, the person has to say the words written in Hebrew on it and then they wear it. Sometimes, people where a tallit to Synagogue. When you have your Bat/Bar Mitzvah you have to read the prayer embedded on the tallit before you put it on. It is also known as a prayer shall.

5) Shofar
A Shofar is usually a rams horn. It is blown on Yom Kippur and at the end of Rosh Hashannah. It is blown in a certain way, to make a tune that sounds like crying. When Jewish people hear the shofar, it reminds them that they have to get up/ wake up and ask for forgivness. At the end of Yom Kippur, the shofar is blown, symbolizing the closing of the book of life.

6) Kippah
A kippah is a small round cap worn on the head. Men and woman were it although in orthodox only men wear it in synagogues. Another word for a Kippah is a yamakuh. It's a symbol of god always being above your head. It also symbolizes that we are dependant of God.

7) Torah
The torah is their sacred book, that Jewish people use to pray and read from. The Torah is very important to everyone in the jewish community.
Some Jewish people believe Moses received the whole torah from god, others believing it was written by several different people. The torah is written in ornate Hebrew calligraphy and is read from left to right. It consists upon 5 books, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Numbers, and Genesis. It takes approximately a year to create a Torah. The Torah should not be touched directly with your hand, rather, use a yod to keep you place while reading. The Torah is read from on many occasions including Bar/Bat Mitzvahs.
Some Christians refer to the Jewish part of their bible as the Old Testament, and the Christian part as the New Testament, but Jews just refer to it as the Torah, because they have no New Testament. The proper name is the Hebrew (old) Testament, and the Greek (new) Testament.

8) Mitzvot
The Mitzvot are the 613 commandments or instructions for Jews to follow. The Mitzvot are said to have been given to Moses by God atop Mt. Sinai. The Mitzvot are considered to be one of the core beliefs of Judaism. The 613 Mitzvot are also represented by the 613 fringes on a Tallit.

9) Rabbi
Rabbi means teacher in hebrew. A rabbi is the religious leader of a synogouge. they teach they people their more about their religion. There are rules about a rabbi's gender depending on different branches of Judaism. Orthadox only lets men be rabbis, while in reform and conservative synagogues, women can be rabbis along with men. Reform and Conservative Judaism branches are considered EGALITARIAN branches (meaning that men and women are equal.)

10) Synagogue
A place, also known as a temple were Jews pray. They also go to synagogue on holidays. The synagogue has many important features such as the:
Ner Tamid: Eternal light (to symbolize God is always there)
Torah (the sacred bible)
Aron Kodesh: Ark (where the Torah is kept)
Bimah (the raised platform, where the service is conducted)
Rabbi's podium (where the Rabbi stands)
Reading table (where the cantor sings and the Torah is read)
There is also seating for the congregation.

11) Western Wall
The Western Wall was once part of the old temple Israel had until it got destroyed. Now the only thing that was left of the old temple was the Western Wall (or wailing wall). People go there to confess their sadness. Now when people go there, they pray or may have their bar/bat mitzvah. Also, they leave notes in the cracks sometimes, to others.

13) Branches of Judaism >>> Egalitarian=equal between men and women
- Reform: 1st BRANCH TO FORM Language of prayer is local language instead of Hebrew. Started in 19th century. Kashrut and Shabbat are observed more loosely by reform Jews. This is an EGALITARIAN branch.
- Orthodox: 2nd BRANCH TO FORM this branch of Judaism is the most strict. Orthodox Jews strongly believe in all 613 mitzvot. They believe that no mitzvot can be changed.
- Conservative: 3rd BRANCH TO FORM Mitzvot can be changed. Observances of Kashrut and Sabbath remain unchanged but are interpreted more loosely than Orthodox Jews do. EGALITARIAN branch
- Reconstructionist: MOST RECENT BRANCH Founded in mid 20th century, An individual Mitzvah can be changed/rejected by community.

14) What is Shabbat? When is it? What happens on this day?
Shabbat (in English called Sabbath) begins when the sun sets on Friday and ends when 3 stars come out on Saturday. Many jewish families will light candles, have some wine, and eat a bread called challah. you pray over all of these items before. Then you eat.
Also, you are not allowed to "work" on the shabbat. this includes no T.V., cooking, internet, or even a car. During Shabbat, you may keep Kosher (it depends on the branch of Judaism that you practice and how you interpret Shabbat) and follow the many rules of Shabbat, which includes that you cannot kindle a fire, which is basically turning something on. However, one rule that over rules all of the Shabbat rules is that you can break the Shabbat rules to save another human beings life, or your own. Shabbat practices vary from branch to branch of Judaism. For example, Orthodox Jews follow the rules and traditions of Shabbat more strictly than Reform Jews do.

15) What is kashrut? What is involved in keeping kosher?
Kashrut, in English means Kosher, and it is the laws of what food you can eat, such as fruits in their natural state, and what food you can't eat, such as fish that don't have fins or scales. To know if a processed food/drink is Kosher, look for Kosher symbols such as a K in a heart, a U in a circle, a K in a shape in the shape of Texas, or a K in a circle. Some foods that are Kosher are Girl Scout Cookies, some Orange Juices, Kettle Brand Baked Potato Chips, and almonds. Not all Jewish people have to follow Kosher, it is a choice.

16) Rosh Hashanah
is the Jewish New Year. You often eat apples and honey for a sweet year. you also eat challah, and pomegranates to remember the 613 mitzvot. (613 seeds in pomegranate.) It is the holiest day of the year, it is know as "the head of the year." It is the beginning of the "days of awe"

17) Yom Kippur- Yom Kippur is a day to ask for forgiveness of anything you did wrong, you also apologize to people 3 times if they don not forgive you the first time. You also fast, meaning you don't eat or drink anything. You fast from the beginning of the day (The night before the sun rises) to when you see three stars in the sky, the following day. Yom Kippur is 10 days after Rosh Hashanah <it is in the fall>. It is the Day Of Atonement. The blowing of the Shofar symbolizes the closing of the Book of Life. It is important that you have your name written in the Book of Life by the time the Shofar is blown. The Days of Awe are days during which you ask to be forgiven for you sins, and from these acts you are attempting to have your name in the Book of Life.

18) Sukkot-also known as the "hut" holiday, it is a very festive holiday. Families build "sukkahs" (a hut) in their yards. Some families have friends over every night to celebrate, it lasts 8 days. The top of the sukka has to be natural, AKA branches, twigs, etc.
Some Sukkas are larger than others. Often families who have more people have a bigger Sukkah. Some people often will sleep in the Sukkah. The holiday of Sukkot occurs 5 days after Yom Kippur.

19) Passover
The holiday of Passover is to remember when the Jews were finally set free by Pharoah, and they had to slaughter an animal and put the blood on their door so God would pass over their houses and not kill the children. When all the egyptian children died, Pharaoh decided to let the hebrews go. Then pharoah changed his mind. He chased the hebrews all the way to the sea of reeds so they were cornered. Then God performed a miracle and parted the sea so the hebrews could get across. But when the Egyptians tried to follow, God let the waters down, drowning all the egyptians and leaving the hebrews safe on the other side. Passover is the most widely celebrated holiday in the Jewish tradition. During dinner on Passover, they retell the story of the Exodus.